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Artisans And Architects: Ruskinian Tradition In Architectural Thought
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American Historical Association members Sign in via society site. Sign in via your Institution Sign in. In both port cities and small towns there was a subtle shift in taste from the earlier Roman-based classicism to Greek sources. Other Styles Simultaneously, other revival styles began to compete nationally with classicism. In the Southwest, the Spanish tradition, occasionally modified by Eastern influences as in California , remained dominant until the Mexican War.
The English-based Gothic revival style became increasingly popular after , especially for houses and churches. Prominent examples include A. Davis's Lyndhurst in Tarrytown, N.
Patrick's Cathedral in New York City — The widely distributed books of A. Downing on the picturesque cottage style and landscape gardening further advanced the trend. Other revival styles popular at the same time included the Italian villa and the Lombard Romanesque.
The writings of John Ruskin began to influence American architects at about the time of the Civil War , and a short-lived fashion for Victorian Gothic buildings ensued, such as Frank Furness's Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia — The trend toward historical eclecticism intensified in the decades following the Civil War. Newly wealthy patrons commissioned buildings in styles characterized by unbridled ostentation, as for example Richard Morris Hunt 's designs for the sprawling mansions of Newport, R. The highly influential Henry Hobson Richardson designed massive, dignified buildings in an abstracted Romanesque style that contrasted sharply with the surrounding eclecticism.
The Birth of Modernism Although divided by stylistic eclecticism, the United States took the lead in the development of advanced building technologies in the second half of the 19th cent. Engineering became a distinctly separate profession, and works such as the Brooklyn Bridge by John and Washington Roebling —83 number among the most impressive of all American achievements.
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The technical innovations of this era included the use of cast iron, steel, and reinforced concrete in construction. The trend toward functional design, which had been steadily growing, reached its greatest expression in the works of the so-called Chicago school of architecture led by Louis Henry Sullivan. Sullivan broke completely with historical eclecticism and used modern materials in such a way as to emphasize their function.
The commercial buildings and skyscrapers of Chicago and other cities built under his influence were admired for their power and originality as well as for the rational organization of their parts.
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Neoclassical Revival Classicism triumphed once again, however, largely because of the Columbian World Exposition in Chicago. The major architectural firms that participated in the fair reinvigorated the classical tradition nationwide, often at an imperial scale, as for example in McKim, Mead, and White's Pennsylvania RR Station in New York City — There were noticeable exceptions to this, particularly in the domestic realm, where the English Arts and Crafts movement implemented by William Morris had a lasting influence in the United States. Modern American Architecture Wright, generally acknowledged as one of the greatest architects of the 20th cent.
Wright, who stood apart from the European-derived modernist mainstream, continued to design buildings into his old age, producing some of his finest and most idiosyncratic works, such as the Guggenheim Museum in New York City — The unornamented, machine-inspired aesthetic of European modernism was introduced to the United States through such foreign-born architects as Richard Neutra, Rudolph Schindler, and William Lescaze during the s.
Later dubbed the International style , this functionalist mode of architecture became preeminent in the United States after World War II , particularly in the design of corporate office buildings. Savage Ruskin. Patrick Conner - Added to PP index Total views 1 1,, of 2,, Recent downloads 6 months 1 , of 2,, How can I increase my downloads? Downloads Sorry, there are not enough data points to plot this chart. Sign in to use this feature. This article has no associated abstract. No keywords specified fix it.
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